2.9 million years divided by 40,000 is 72.5 years. So shouldn’t a 40,000 year old man be 1/72.5 more primate-like than we are? That seems like a pretty large difference, given that the way they date undiscovered common ancestors is by the number of differences in DNA times mutation rates that occur within members of a species generationally.
They are getting better and better at sequencing ancient DNA, especially at the Max Planck Institute of Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany under Svante Pääbo, who sequenced the first Neanderthal fossil genome. They say that non-sub-Saharan Africans all have between 2 and 5 percent Neanderthal DNA. I am still not sure that this is not based solely on the similarity of certain gene sequences, because they have not found mitochondrial DNA that should be present from a Neanderthal mother, nor y-chromosomal DNA that should be present from a Neanderthal father. I think the reason Svante says human women must have found Neanderthals attractive is because neither of these would be present if the hybrid was a girl and had a human mother. For this to be the only way means that all other offspring were either unviable or sterile. It seems the duplications in sequences could also be coincidental adaptations to European/Eurasian environments.
In 2013 they were able to sequence a 40,000 year old anatomically modern human found in China called the Tianyuan Cave Man, and have since further refined the details. What they are hoping to prove is that ancient anatomically modern humans were different from us:
“The term “early modern humans” generally refers to humans who fall within the morphological variation of present-day humans and date to the Middle or Early Upper Paleolithic. The earliest modern humans appear in the Eurasian fossil record about 45,000 y ago, whereas the last remains that tend to be classified as early modern humans are about 25,000 y old. Early modern humans may exhibit some archaic features shared with other earlier forms of humans such as Neandertals. Although early modern humans are thus only vaguely defined as a group, their genetic relationship to present-day humans is unclear. Similarly, their relationship to archaic humans is of interest, given that they may have interacted directly with them.”
Sadly for evolutionists, this is what they found:
“The results show that early modern humans present in the Beijing area 40,000 y ago were related to the ancestors of many present-day Asians as well as Native Americans. However, they had already diverged from the ancestors of present-day Europeans.
That Europeans and East Asians had diverged by 40,000 y ago is consistent with dates for the first archaeological appearance of modern humans in Europe and also with the upper end of an estimate [23 ka BP (95% CI: 17–43 ka BP)] for the divergence of East Asian and European populations from nuclear DNA variation in present-day populations. The results also show that the Tianyuan individual did not carry any larger proportion of Neandertal or Denisovan DNA sequences in its genome than present-day people in the region. More analyses of additional early modern humans across Eurasia will further refine our understanding of when and how modern humans spread across Eurasia.”
Still, the research is fascinating as it further complicates the story of ancient human migrations.
Here’s another link about the Tianyuan Cave Man